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                              記敘文的常用結構模式

                              2011-12-10 15:31:03 來源:本站原創 【 】 點擊: 次         ★★★

                                記敘文的常用結構模式有如下三種:總分式、并列式和對照式。

                                一、總分式結構

                                無論是寫人還是敘事,我們都需要圍繞一個中心展開,這中心就是記敘文要展現的核心,將核心內容放在記敘文的開頭,開門見山點明文章的中心,是總起;而放在寫人敘事的結尾處加以強調,是總括。總分式便因此可以分為三種:總分、分總、總分總。無論使用哪一種形式,都應注意,分總之間必須有緊密的內在聯系,分述部分要圍繞總述的中心(人物性格和主題)進行,總述部分應是分述的總綱或水到渠成的總結。

                                二、并列式結構

                                無論是記敘一件事的多個側面,還是通過幾件不同的事來展現一個共同的主題,常常需要從多重內容和多個角度來寫人敘事,表現人物和主題,這多重內容和多個角度之間構成并列關系,使文章有了層次感和厚重感,這就是最常見的并列式結構。

                                如果是寫一個人物,我們應該圍繞人物的性格選擇細節。人物性格是復雜的,往往有著多個側面,那么,要展現一個人復雜的性格,就應該從兩個或者兩個以上的側面去展現,以使人物形象更加豐滿而立體。如《項鏈》中的瑪蒂爾德,既有虛榮心極強的一面,也有自尊自愛的一面,作者通過借項鏈和丟失項鏈之后的兩方面細節對比展開,展現出瑪蒂爾德可恨可鄙又可敬可愛的兩個側面,使得人物立體豐滿,栩栩如生。

                                如果記敘文寫作中需要圍繞一個主題去敘述事實,我們依然可以采用這一章法,即用兩個或兩個以上不同方面的實例加以表現,通過小和大,名人和普通人,文藝界和體育界,物質和精神等等不同的方面的人物或事例,展現相同的主題或者主題的不同深度。如以“豐收”為主題的一篇作文,一位同學就選擇了兩位不同的人的事例加以展現,一是選取了自己的舅舅因種植的西瓜又大又好而獲得了“瓜王”的稱號和后光榮回村的情節,展現新時代的農民物質上的豐收。接著又用自己在教師節那一天去看望老師,老師書房中滿滿一面墻上貼滿了學生發來的賀卡,展現了辛勤耕耘的教師深受學生愛戴,從而獲得精神上的豐收。這樣從物質和精神兩個層面共同展現出“豐收”的意義,給人深刻的啟迪。

                                運用并列式結構需要注意:并列的幾個內容應各自獨立,但又緊緊圍繞著一個中心(人物性格或主旨);并列的各個部分必須是平行的,注意不要出現交叉或從屬。

                                三、對照式結構

                                記敘文的對照式結構其實可以看作是并列結構的一種特例,只因為并列的事例內容上是真與假、好與壞、美與丑、善與惡、公與私等對立的兩方作對比,故稱為對照式結構。如《守財奴》一課中,巴爾扎克就將葛朗臺對金錢的執著和種種為爭奪金錢的種種丑態和女兒歐也妮對金錢的無所謂,對父親的真愛鮮明對比,突出葛朗臺被金錢腐蝕的丑惡靈魂,以及歐也妮靈魂的美好和崇高。記敘文中的對照結構應該特別注意不要簡單地通過評價直接對比,而要在字里行間要滲透作者的褒貶、愛憎之情,讓事實說話。

                                這幾種技法,既是分別獨立的,又可以融為一體,如總分中,分的內容可以是并列式,也可以是對照式,而無論是并列還是對照,在一篇文章中都只能圍繞一個中心展開。所以不要可以追求形式,還是要集中展現人物性格以及文章主旨。(開心作文吧 www.hrhwj.com 整理)

                               

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